In proper tonal languages such as cantonese or mandarin, the phones a phoneme comprises of share the same tone. In other words, mā (in pinyin) and má are clearly different phonemes.
If I were to look up the phonemes of English, there would be no mention of stress despite the fact that e.g. "insight" and "incite" differ only on stress.
Likewise in Japanese, as I understand it, はし (箸, chopsticks) and はし (橋, bridge) differ only in pitch.
Neither English nor Japanese are considered "tonal", and in these languages there aren't separate stressed/non-stressed and up-pitch/down-pitch phonemes. Why is this the case?
(I have no formal training whatsoever in linguistics but I'm happy to do some in-depth reading.)