It seems that some prepositions and clausal adverbs have antecedents while others do not – for example because and therefore require antecedents, while in and clearly do not. I was wondering whether this property has a name, and where I could find discussion of how the antecedents are selected.
Conjunctions like "because" and "which" that are found at the beginning of a dependent clause are often referred to as "subordinating conjunctions" to distinguish them from conjunctions like "and" or "so" which do not form dependent clauses.
"Therefore" however would not be considered a subordinating conjunction as its use results in the formation of independent clauses. But it is clearly different from conjunctions like "and" as it sounds marked when used without a preceding context. These types of words that necessarily link two clauses but do not form dependent clauses when doing so are sometimes referred to as conjunctive adjectives.
It's also important to note that clausal conjunctions can often evolve into discourse markers making them even more difficult to accurately and consistently categorize, as in the case of "so".