I have in my hand a rather ancient text in Arabic. There's a frequent construction which I couldn't grasp the full meaning. It is [ transitive verb + preposition ], in which the preposition is fixed and means "to, over, unto, upon". When person A does this action to person B, the syntax is [subject(A) + conjugated verb + preposition + object(B)].
God "salla"s upon you.
Hu wa alladhi yusalli alaikum.
هُوَ الَّذِي يُصَلِّي عَلَيْكُمْ
Seems to be 3rd person masculine singular imperfect tense.
Person B is on the passive side but the mind boggling thing is this passivity is also narrated as [subject(B) + conjugated verb + preposition + object(A)].
Hi didn't "salla". (OK the object is missing here but the context compels that he should have "salla"ed to/upon God in accordance, but he did not) La saddaka ve la salla. لَا صَدَّقَ وَلَا صَلَّى Seems to be 3rd person masculine singular perfect tense.
I think the verb in question is this (form-II): https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/صلى Source text is The Quran.
I'm perplexed by this because AFAIK, the languages I speak, English, German and Turkish don't have something like this. When you are on the receiving side, the arrangement changes. A hit B; B is hit BY A. A gives TO B; B receives FROM A. In these languages either the verb, the conjugation and/or the preposition in front changes. There is a possibility that the verb in question is actually two homonym verbs but in that case at least the preposition would probably be different. (As in "A hit B." vs. "A hit on B.") Are there examples in any language that a certain action can be told using the same arrangement from points of views of both the acting side and receiving side? The author of the text might have expected the reader to discern between the active and passive meanings because there's enough contextual information. The story is roughly, person A helps person B and person B acknowledges the help of person A. It seems to me the problem is kind of logical. Any suggestion or idea might help. Thanks in advance. Background: BSc. I'm not a linguist, I have a little translation experience. My native tongue is Turkish. I don't speak Arabic. An online Arabic teacher could not answer this question.