I know that the vowel in the second syllable is lengthened, but what are the rules or constraints for the lengthening?
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This is the result of rule (20b), p. 181 of Chomsky & Halle 1968 The sound pattern of English, colloquially known as "Abelian lengthening". By that rule, a non-high vowel becomes tense (that was later reanalyzed as length) before one consonant followed by an unstressed front vocoid in turn followed by a vowel (i.e. before CĭV).