Is any term identified, among linguists, for an effect by which some speech or text has no meaning, and yet superficially resembles, by following certain patterns, speech or text from a particular language or language group?
The following are examples to illustrate the concept:
Consider the following meaningless text:
Furgle blunkers manergatation
Assuming that the text was written with an intention to follow English orthographic patterns, you probably can infer an intended pronunciation, even though you recognize no word from those you have learned.
Imagine trying to teach someone to reproduce the speech and text from memory. One might speculate that such a task is much easier in the case that a person is familiar with English, compared to the case that a person has had no exposure, because of the superficial resemblance between the phonetic and orthographic structure of the sample and that of speech or text understood as English.
A comedy sketch, performed by American comedians Keegan-Michael Key and Jordan Peele, attempts to lampoon how an English speaker might experience speech of the French language. The humor of the sketch depends on a gimmick, by which the audience hears speech that some incorrectly may believe is understood as French.
Italian singer Adriano Celentano, in 1972, released Prisencolinensinainciusol, a song explained as "intended to sound to its Italian audience as if it is sung in English spoken with an American accent, vaguely reminiscent of Bob Dylan; however, the lyrics are deliberately unintelligible gibberish with the exception of the words 'all right'."
(A dance performance of the musical piece, in collaboration with Italian dancer Raffaella Carrà, additionally parodies visual features of certain American performing styles.)
(Thank you to user @livresque for providing this additional example.)