Is there an established term in linguistics which is a hypernym of both 'things' (e.g. entities; categories of entities; actions; ...), and the relationships between them?

Intuitively, I would assume that maybe 'concepts' would work. I can have a (mental) concept of 'dog' (category), a mental concept of a specific entity, e.g. 'Mike', a concept of 'dancing' (action), and a concept of relations, e.g. 'is_a' as in 'Mike is_a Dog', or 'has_owner' as in 'Mike has_owner Karl'.

Framed differently, I am interested in whether there is a linguistic term which covers subject, predicate and object in a semantic triple <s,p,o>.

Is 'concept' the right choice here, or is there another term used in scholarly contexts which encompasses both things/actions and relations between those?

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    There is the notion of a "content word" vs. "function word", which is roughly the distinction between nouns/verbs/adjectives/proper names one the one hand and conjunctions/articles/prepositions and the like on the other hand. But this is a generalization of word categories and isn't normally used in extension to complex expressions, and it is just a static category about the lexical status of the word without taking into account its grammatical role in the sentence. – lemontree Jul 29 at 15:53
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    In the terminology of semantics, properties of individuals (is-a-dog, dances, is-red) and relations between individuals (loves, has-owner, lies-between-and) are summarized under the term "predicates", but this doesn't include individual entities (Mike, the president of the US) and quantified expressions (a dog, all dogs). "Predicate" here is not to be confused with the syntactic meaning of "predicate" which is usually taken to be the verb of a sentence, not the subject or object. – lemontree Jul 29 at 15:58
  • Linguistics doesn't have that term because not all the languages operate with them. What looks like 3 elements in [I] [am a] [man] from your point of view is treated quite differently in, say, Turkish where this phrase is bir adamım where bir means the same as English ‘a’ and adamım ‘am man’. – Yellow Sky Jul 30 at 5:22
  • Any entity (Bill Smith, a piece of pie, the officer of the day) can appear as a predicate. Any verb or adjective can appear as a predicate. Sounds like you mean "predicate". – jlawler Jul 30 at 21:06
  • @jlawler You mean any entity can appear as a subject or object? Or what would be an example where an individual occurs as a predicate (in the syntactic sense)? – lemontree Jul 31 at 12:11

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