a. Some English words have more letters in their spelling than they have sounds in their pronunciation, but none have more sounds than they have letters.

b. If an English word has 3 vowels sounds, it must also contain at least 3 consonant sounds in its pronunciation.

c. A vowel letter (< a e i o u >) may represent different sounds in a given word, but a consonant letter always represents the same sound if it appears twice in a given word.

d. Pronouncing hoop requires more tongue movement than does pronouncing too.

e. Some words contain fewer phonemes than allophones in their normal pronunciation.

f. If a word contains 5 morphemes, at least one of those morphemes will be a prefix.

g. Derivational morphemes change the part of speech of the word they attach to.

h. When the string of words “those crazy kids” appears in a sentence, it functions as a noun phrase.

  • 4
    Please improve your question. First, please ask your question in the form of a question. What you have here is a list of statements--the reader can only assume that they are true/false questions. Second, please ask one question at a time. You've got eight statements here. Finally, this looks like a "do my homework for me" question, and is less likely to elicit an answer for that reason. – James Grossmann May 14 '13 at 3:30
  • STL, welcome to Linguistics. Please improve your question as James suggested. The title is too vague: what are you asking about? There is not a single concept being treated here. I'll be closing the question right now but I'm intending it to be a "this question is paused", to give you or others a chance to improve on it. I'd do it myself but I have no idea where to start. If you tell us more about it I can try to fix it and reopen it. Please note: a -1 is automatic. – Alenanno May 14 '13 at 10:23

Presuming they're intended as questions (if odd ones!)

a. perhaps 'I' is a counterexample, depending on what you mean by 'sound'?
b. 'amity' is a counterexample
c. no, 'gauge'
d. yes (no coronals in 'hoop')
e. I'm not quite sure what this question means, but maybe it's true, eg 'state' where the  
   single phoneme /t/ manifests as two different allophones
f. Very arbitrary, but how about 'institutionalisation' as a counterexample?
g. Derivational morphemes are morphemes that create (derive) a new word; this very often 
   results in a change of part of speech, although not always.
h. 'those crazy kids' is a NP (wherever it appears) therefore true.
  • Thank you for the feedback. I posted these "true/false" questions, which I forgot to specify, to get some insight on the time it would take for responses to be posted. I was hoping to include these on my end of term exam if they didn't seem too difficult. – STL May 14 '13 at 4:04
  • +1. But, ad f.): You could say in- is or was a prefix, but I see what you mean, hehe. Ad g.): How is that by definition true? How about orient/orientate? Red/reddish? In/into? Broker/brokerage? Dragon/dragonling? I would rather say it usually changes the part of speech. – Cerberus May 14 '13 at 4:45
  • @Cerberus The 'in-' in 'institute' was a prefix in the Latin source, but not synchronically (but you knew that, right?). Re g.) true, not all derivational morphemes change the POS; what I meant was that morphemes that change the POS are defined as derivational morphemes. I'll clarify my answer. – Gaston Ümlaut May 14 '13 at 6:08

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