Disclaimer: I am assuming that the example sentences listed here have been vetted by a native speaker, but since I'm not totally sure of this, I'll use a leading @ sign to show my uncertainty. If I am inferring or guessing that something is ungrammatical, I will use two asterisks **like this. I will reserve the absence of a mark for full examples and a single asterisk for native speaker judgments that I can cite. The contents of https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Expressing_%22everything%22_with_%22shenme_dou%22 are under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. I'm using their examples in this question.
I am calling a verb in a serial verb construction that is not the "head" one a coverb.
I'm not certain of the tentative observations listed in this question. I'm mostly including them as justification for why I'm confused.
I'm also not sure whether "Standard Chinese" is a purely artificial standard or whether it additionally refers to some dialects of Mandarin that are close to the standard. I'm assuming the latter.
Standard Chinese (henceforth SC) has a couple of constructions for expressing universal quantification, some of which are productive 所有 (suǒyǒu), 每 (měi) + classifier, 都 (dōu) before the verb and some others of limited productivity like reduplication (e.g. 天天 (tiāntiān) every day).
The distribution of 什么 and 都, though, seems hard to understand and I'm interested in a theoretical explanation of where they end up and why and what the constraints are. I'm basing these observations on example sentences and learner-oriented language in the wiki article.
- 什么 seems to occupy the same position before a noun that classifier phrases do.
- 都, in this usage, seems to appear before the entire predicate complex (i.e. before coverbs as well), rather than appearing before the main verb.
- 什么...都 appears to scope higher than negation.
- 什么...都 is capable of yanking core arguments out of their normal position.
- 什么 can appear after the noun it modifies.
Some of the examples on the Chinese Grammar Wiki show patient arguments appearing before the verb using the 什么...都 construction.
(101) @ 我们 什么 果汁 都 喝。 Wǒmen shénme guǒzhī dōu hē. 1pl what fruit-juice all drink We drink any kind of fruit juice.
I'm pretty sure that moving the patient (什么果汁) ahead of the verb, or failing to move it after the verb if we think of SC as underlyingly SOV, is obligatory.
(102) ** 我们 都 喝 什么 果汁。 Wǒmen dōu hē shénme guǒzhī. ** We drink any kind of fruit juice.
都 appears to precede coverbs, in this example, it appears before the coverb 跟 (gēn) rather than after it. This makes its distribution different than aspect markers and the X不X construction.
(103) @ 你 不 应该 什么 话 都 跟 他 说。 Nǐ bù yīnggāi shénme huà dōu gēn tā shuō. You not should what speech all with 3sg speak. You shouldn't tell him everything.
什么 can be separated from the noun it modifies if that noun moves to topic position. I'm not sure whether or not this is the only time that the noun modified by 什么 can be moved away from it.
(104) @ 妈妈 做 的 菜 我 什么 都 喜欢。 Māma zuò de cài wǒ shénme dōu xǐhuan. Mother make DE food 1sg what all like.
These observations, taken as a whole, are really confusing. Is there a good theoretical explanation for where 什么 and 都 can appear and what the constraints are?