Sanskrit nouns stems ending in dipthongs are very rare but I could still find examples of at least one stem each ending in every dipthong except e‌ ए.

ऐ ai - रै rai

ओ o - गो go

औ au - नौ nau

But I could not find any noun stem in e ए. Every book or online tutorial that mentions dipthong ending noun stems mentions only these these but they say nothing about e. Is there any noun stem ending in e ए in Sanskrit?

http://www.learnsanskrit.org/references/nouns/vowels A Sanskrit Grammar for Students by Arthur A. Macdonell

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    By which should we assume you mean in "the nominative singular", and not "the dative sg.; vocative sg., n-a dual"? But then, your examples don't, so you must actually have in mind a specific phonological theory where "रै" has a diphthong. Which theory?
    – user6726
    Nov 12, 2020 at 16:53
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    I do not mean in "the nominative singular" or in any other declension, I am asking about the stems that end in e, ai, o and au, of which I see examples of only ai, o and au and no example of stems ending in e. Nov 13, 2020 at 2:53
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    I don’t think there are, actually. Never thought about that before. Even some of the ones mentioned on the page you include are fairly irregular synchronically, so it’s questionable whether they should really be called diphthongal stems or just irregular; I wouldn’t really call go an o-stem, at least. Theoretically, there could have been e-stems as well (ei-or oi-stems in PIIr. terms), but if there were any, they all seem to have been levelled out into other declensions as best I can think. Nov 13, 2020 at 12:53

1 Answer 1


Yes, Sanskrit has stems which end in e. Examples are the sup pratyaya (nominal suffix) ṅe or the tiṅ pratyayas (verbal suffixs) e, se, te, āte, ante, dhve. These pratyayas (suffixs) when used as nouns can take all the vibhaktis (declensions). You would find them being used in sanskrit commentaries and grammar texts.

Ex: the Pāṇini sūtra 7.1.13: ṅer yaḥ - here ṅe is treated as a noun ending in e-stem, and declined in sixth/genitive case.

Another example is Harināmāmṛta-vyākaraṇa sūtra 162: kṛṣṇāt ṅer yaḥ
After a masculine word ending in a-stem (called Kṛṣṇa in that grammar) ṅe (the dative singular suffix) is replaced with ya. One finally gets kṛṣṇāya from this.

Another example is the single letter e which means Lord Viṣṇu according to Ekākṣara-kośa, which is declined as follows:

Mas. Sing. Dual Plural
Nom. eḥ | ayau | ayaḥ
Voc. eḥ/e | ayau | ayaḥ
Acc. am | ayau | ayaḥ
Ins. ayā | ebhyām | ebhiḥ
Dat. aye | ebhyām | ebhyaḥ
Abl. eḥ | ebhyām | ebhyaḥ
Gen. eḥ | ayoḥ | ayām
Loc. ayi | ayoḥ | eṣu

Monier-williams Dictionary also gives the word ve - a bird and se - service (f.) and serving (n.). It is declined like above.

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    You shouldn’t assume everyone is familiar with Sanskrit grammatical terminology. Even as someone who’s studied Sanskrit, I had to look up several words to understand your first paragraph. Also, it would help to give examples. I can’t find any reference to a suffix -णे in Sanskrit or how it would decline; that would be easier if you gave an example of a word that has this suffix. Apr 26, 2021 at 17:03
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    You also need to present evidence that the stem ends in e, as the question asks. Simply "ending in e is not the same thing.
    – user6726
    Apr 26, 2021 at 18:21
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    @JanusBahsJacquet What this answer is saying is that ṅe is an artificial term in Paninian grammar (referring to the dative singular case ending), which itself can take case endings and declines as an e-stem. I agree that the answer should be edited for clarity. See e.g. sanskritdictionary.com/panini/7-1-13
    – TKR
    Apr 27, 2021 at 2:17

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