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If a new language is discovered or if a study shows that a certain language should be reclassified, is there a committee(s) that decides on this ? (who ?)

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    No, there is no politburo in linguistics, just communis opinio (achieved through scholarly discussion - at times very heated - in peer-reviewed journals, scholarly monographs and edited books, and sometimes conferences). And no one is forced to accept it anyway, even if it's generally accepted.
    – Alex B.
    Nov 22 '20 at 19:35
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    @PrimataLógico Anyone can publish whatever nonsense they want. Either others will agree with it or they won't. After some time, the voice from that publication will be used by others in their publications or will be forgotten. Classifications disagreements are common and politically loaded. Are Serbian and Croatian two languages or is it Serbo-Croatian which is divided more on the Chakavian/Shtokavian/Kajkavian line? Is Rusyn a separate language or just a form of western Ukrainian?
    – Vladimir F
    Nov 22 '20 at 21:25
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    ... Often the politicians and the political views of the scholars in those countries determine it and the outside view can be different.
    – Vladimir F
    Nov 22 '20 at 21:27
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    Why would anyone want "to measure" consensus? What matters is 1. how accurate you report language data ; 2. how convincing your analysis of the data is.
    – Alex B.
    Nov 22 '20 at 22:49
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    re: "Certain languages are considered holy, and any deviation would be rejected" - 'holy languages' is only a matter of consideration for a sociolinguist, to better understand how that language is used. But that does not make such languages immune to any critical scholarly analysis. I do linguistics, not theology.
    – Alex B.
    Nov 22 '20 at 22:56

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