Starostin alleges that IE root h₁n̥gʷnís has cognates in Finno-Urgic.

But I distrust this database and also I would like to know what was the proto-form of the root, particularly, the origin of Mari ǝŋɣä-.

  • 3
    it's worth noting Starostin only alleges reflexes in Ugric, Mari, & Komi Zyrian. These come from a pretty small subarea of the total Uralic range, so I'd be skeptical of an argument for a proto-Uralic (or even proto-FInno-Ugric if that's a valid subgrouping) reconstruction on this basis. That said wiktionary gives the source of Hungarian ég as proto-Uralic *äŋɜ-, corresponding to Starostin's reconstruction and cites uralonet.nytud.hu/eintrag.cgi?locale=en_GB&id_eintrag=45 so it isn't just. Starostin
    – Tristan
    Jan 25, 2021 at 15:39
  • @Tristan thanks, I wonder, what the characters in äŋɜ- mean though...
    – Anixx
    Jan 25, 2021 at 15:42
  • 2
    it's common uralicist notation using the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet. <ä> is a low vowel with front harmony, as in Finnish, <ŋ> is a velar nasal as in the IPA, <ɜ> is an uncertain vowel (i.e. the same as V in Starostin's notation)
    – Tristan
    Jan 25, 2021 at 16:01
  • @Tristan thanks
    – Anixx
    Jan 25, 2021 at 16:02

1 Answer 1


The reconstruction as PIE root h₁n̥gʷnís is highly dubious.
IMO better is H3egni-, even though some comparanda do not fit very well into it (They don't fit in h₁n̥gʷnís either...).
A connection with Mari, Khanty and Hungarian is thinkable, but Komi with a palatal nasal does not seem to fit.


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