"The distinction between *ě₁ and *ě₂ is based on etymology and have different effects on a preceding consonant: *ě₁ triggers the first palatalization and then becomes *a, while *ě₂ triggers the second palatalization and does not change."
from Proto-Slavic_language
I didn't find any example of ě₁ palatalization.
google gives only 50 not unique results at all
I need help.

  • 2
    Unfortunately, the Wikipedia article you linked does not have many footnotes giving the source of particular claims. I have asked the Wikipedia editor who actually inserted that text in 2013 if they can elucidate.
    – Colin Fine
    Commented Feb 16, 2021 at 17:50
  • 1
    @AlexB. Unfortunately you are wrong. *ě₁ and *ě₂ is a convenient way to distinguish between Proto-Slavic ě (PIE *ē) and Proto-Slavic ě (PIE *ai, *oi)
    – fedor
    Commented Feb 16, 2021 at 22:12

1 Answer 1


What is often marked ě in Slavic studies was probably actually a long e (*ē, with some unspecified degree of openness). I am not sure there is any widely accepted intermediate *ě₁ that would be clearly distinct from the original *ē. One could simply consider *C₁ē > *C₂a.

The examples that changed to an "a" could be:

mozg‑ē‑nos > mozd’žanъ > moždanъ > možd’žanъ > možd’anъ > (OCS можданъ - marrow)

(compare with mozg, мозг - brain)


pisk‑ē‑la (or piskělь) > pištalь (OCS пищаль - flute)

(compare with pískati, пискати - sqeak)

(from https://www.czechency.org/slovnik/PALATALIZACE - in Czech)

  • What is often marked ě in Slavic studies was actually a long e PIE *ē, PS ě₁ (сѣꙗти, вѣꙗти compare sow but seed) and actually a PIE ai/oi ě₂ (хлѣбъ, дѣлити compare loaf, deal (+ i mutation)) Thanks for the examples
    – fedor
    Commented Feb 17, 2021 at 22:00
  • @fedor Please understand that what you mark ѣ was no modern Russian е sound. The reconstruction of Proto-Slavic ě/ѣ is much more problematic. And do not argue with modern English, for god's sake, that went hrough way too many sound changes. Commented Feb 18, 2021 at 8:17
  • 1
    @fedor Please read en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yat for introduction, but it does not contain everything. But it is quite clear that yat was some kind of long e. Commented Feb 18, 2021 at 8:20
  • Vladimir извини, с реконструкцией ятя всё ясно и у меня сейчас вопрос закрыт, я привёл тебе пример с sow ибо англ. o sow ~ др.англ. a sa(w)an ~ готское ai saian (которое также как и в славянском ять имеет две природы ē и ai) "Similarly, verb stems ending in -ái-, -áu-, -ē-, -iu-, and -ō- become -aj-, -aw, -ai-, -iw, and -au- respectively;" поэтому sow но seed, извини пока больше отвечать не буду, пока по-английски сформулирую день пройдёт времени нету, можем списаться где-нибудь, если хочешь
    – fedor
    Commented Feb 18, 2021 at 8:42

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