So, while reading the New Grammar of Spanish Language (a book from a very influential institute of the Spanish languague: Royal Spanish Academy) I found out these terms (they'll be in bold) from acoustic and perceptive phonetics. So, paraphrasing (because the original text is in Spanish):
In acoustic phonetics, sounds are classified based on: the amplitude (the energy of the vibration of the air's molecules that cause the sound, made by exhalation), the frecuency (determined by the opening and closure of the vocal chord) and the time. This amplitude is filtered by pharyngeal, oral and nasal cavities, creating the formants: the frequency bands of the sound.
So, based on the amplitude, frequency and time, we can classify sounds by their origins (perodical/aperiodical [sonorous/dull])[...]
In perceptive phonetics: we can classify sounds based on the intensity, tone, timbre [...]
My question is, how should I understand those terms in simple words? (analogies are welcome). They're too technical. I'm searching for non-technical, easy definitions.
I'm not even sure what "amplitude" and "frequency bands" really mean (although, I know they're terms connected to physics) and in the case of the term "frequency", I think they're using the same term people use on physics but I'm neither sure and, on the other hand, I don't know if when they say "aperiodical" and "periodical", they're classifying them based on the time of the sounds.
In the case of the perceptive terms, instensity sounds like "strength" and I know tone and timbre are qualities and with the tone we can classify sounds in high and low-pitched sounds and with the timbre we can distinguish between two sounds of the same frequency and intensity (such as the sound of a trumpet and a violin) but, what are exactly these qualities?
Sorry if something sounds confusing; if my English is not the best (my first language is Spanish and I'm translating the paragraphs); if I didn't ask correctly; or, if I posted this question in the wrong section (I'm not sure if it belongs here or in StackExchange's physics or Spanish sections).