What would be the right way to normalize the Arabic Tāʼ marbūṭah character in Urdu loan words from Arabic/Farsi?

Would it be correct to replace ۃ with ہ (gōl hē)?
Or can we replace ۃ with ط (t̤oʼē) ?

What is the general norm for normalization?

Please also note that I have not asked if I can replace ۃ with ت (tē) because it could create ambiguities as described here.

  • There's one more option: leaving the Arabic Tāʼ marbūṭah as it is in Arabic, with the two dots.
    – Yellow Sky
    Commented Apr 10, 2021 at 18:06
  • Indeed, but it seems that isn't the case when writing Arabic-derived words in Urdu. Example: جمهورية to جمہوریہ
    – Gōkúl NC
    Commented Apr 11, 2021 at 14:17

1 Answer 1


I don't believe Arabic ۃ is ever replaced with ط (t̤oʼē) in Urdu.

Arabic ۃ is usually replaced with ہ (gōl hē) with the exception of a few well-known terms, such as: صلوٰۃ زکوٰۃ. Examples of Arabic words where it's replaced with ہ include کلمہ, طیّبہ, زیادہ.

If you know Urdu well enough, you can read some discussion on this message board which also points to some grammar reference.

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