I remember reading about some language in which both [t] and [k] were considered the same phoneme and one of the [t] and [k] were used in formal and the other in informal settings. Does such a language exist or was what I read a myth? I apologize for being vague but I have no other information about that language and it is bugging me.

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There are a few Polynesian languages such as Hawaiian and Samoan that don't contrast [t] and [k] i.e. [t] and [k] exist as allophones of /t/.

The language you're looking for seems to be Samoan where /t/ is pronounced [k] in colloquial speech and [t] in formal speech.

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