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Consider a wh-question (in english language) such as "Who closed the door?". Personally, I can determine that an answer will look like "NP closed the door.", where NP would be a noun phrase. Another example is "What is John looking at?". I can determine that the answer will look like "John is looking at NP".

Is there a proper way to determine structure of such answers (preferably computational or algorithmical)? Are there any specifications for what a proper english question must look like in terms of POS-tags?

P.S. There is no need for a comprehensive answer, which would cover all possible wh- questions. I also would be grateful for help with any special case:

For example, I assume (correct me if I am wrong) that a question of form

(SBARQ
    (WHNP (WP Who))
    (SQ
      (VP))
    (. ?))

Must have an answer of form

(S
    (NP)
    (VP)
    (. .))

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