If possible, has it been documented which language(s) seem to have the most amount of redundant elements? The least amount?

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    It really depends on what you consider redundant. Any element that might be considered redundant from the point of view of formal semantics has social connotations that speakers exploit. If you take that into account there is no redundancy in language. – robert Aug 25 '13 at 14:32
  • See, for example, this little page: languagetutoring.co.uk/Redundancy.html – James Grossmann Aug 25 '13 at 16:55
  • Also see this article: fountainmagazine.com/Issue/detail/… – James Grossmann Aug 25 '13 at 17:00
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    And on the other side, if we go all the way through linguistic levels, down to the phonetic level, there are enough redundant clues that we can afford to leave out great chunks of language whenever we're sure they won't be missed. This is how languages change. Some estimates go as high as 90% redundancy in natural language. Otherwise we couldn't understand one another if there were any ambient noise. Redundancy is a design feature, not a but. – jlawler Aug 25 '13 at 19:03
  • That sposta be bug, with a G, there at the end of the last comment. Some things we shouldn't leave out. – jlawler Aug 25 '13 at 20:47

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