The previous question was closed as predicted despite it being edited to only focus on the method itself. The current question was suggested as a substitute, so lets try this one then.In order to justify whether the comparative method is scientific as is being claimed, it need to be shown how it is scientific by showing what is universally accepted since the 20th century in all sciences, including social: does it make falsifiable predictions that can be empirically tested?
On PIE. It seems so far to me somebody sits somewhere looking at a list of cognates. Then they deduce from the list of cognates the proto word, then they proceed to derive from the proto-word the sound laws by which it changed in the various attested IE languages. Then from the sound laws it is decided which word is older and which is younger. Then it is decided how the word migrated across Indo-Europe even if it contradicts native histories of those lands or the archaeological record of them. If it does contradict the native history or archaeological record, then an auxiliary hypothesis is added to make the main hypothesis coherent with the contradictory data. In this way falsification never happens because any n number of auxiliary hypothesis can be added multiplying unknowns ad-infinitum.
As per the modern and universal scientific method the first move in the steps above deducing the proto-word is a testable hypothesis. The others moves will not be allowed. First the proto word needs to be tested. So now my question, how do you test it? I will present one example of cognate lists and can you show me how you derive a testable theory from it and the how do you go about testing it in your discipline.
The word for four: Gothic: fidwor; Latin quattuor; Ancient Greek: téssares Sanskrit: catvā́ras Avestan: čaϑwārō OCS: četyre; OPrus: ketturei; OIr: ceth(a)ir Armenian: čʿorkʿ; Albanian: katër; Tochariyan A: śtwar
Now please walk me through all the steps by applying your method how you derive the proto word and how you test your hypothesis.
Note: I am recording all these conversations as source material for future papers on the topic of Epistemology of the Comparative Method in Historical Linguistics.