The fact that phonemes are not invariant is shown in many studies. The first one, so far as I know, is that of Liberman, Delattre and Cooper (1952) in their report on the identification of synthetic, voiceless stops in CV syllables.

These guys examined the perceptual effects of the initial stop bursts associated with /p/, /t/, and /k/ by manipulating their spectral properties.

I would like to run a similar experiment in my class. Does anyone know where I can find these (or other) stimuli?

  • How do you mean ‘find’ them? Most commonly, if you want to make VOT experiments like this one, you’d use Praat to manipulate sound bites. The sound bites themselves can just be a recording of you saying ‘paa taa kaa’. Oct 3, 2021 at 22:09
  • 3
    What do you mean by "invariant"? How do you propose one could show that "phonemes are not invariant"? Finding stimuli is vastly easier than determining what the hypothesis is.
    – user6726
    Oct 3, 2021 at 23:04


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