In many languages it is a convention to translate or at least adapt foreign personal names to the language when discussing foreign people, especially notable and often mentioned people such as foreign regents, popes etc.
Historically, it seems this also used to be more common in English and other European languages. At least in English some of the typical ways this is done are:
- directly translating some part of the name (like Zimmermann->Carpenter)
- adopting a form that seems more familiar to the language (Apfelbaum->Applebaum or Bauer->Bower)
- finding an etymologically related name (Ioannis->John)
When did the modern trend of not translating personal names arise, and what caused it?