When and why can adjective phrases come after nouns in English, if at all?
So, firstly: I am not talking about special usages like poetry or drama etc. where people may say things like "The night dark and stormy", but standard normal English (whatever that is).
I will use an example: "The bread available in the bakery looks delicious". This is a pretty normal English sentence, right?
In the above sentence, "the bread available in the bakery" is a noun phrase. "Available in the bakery" looks like an adjective phrase within the noun phrase -- 'available' is an adjective, and "in the bakery" looks like a prepositional phrase adjunct, and of course a phrase headed by an adjective is an adjective phrase. But, if it is an adjective phrase, why does it come after the noun?
I have 2 theories:
There is an omitted 'that is' in the phrase: "The bread available in the bakery" is a shortened version of "The bread that is available in the bakery". --> "available in the bakery", in this sentence, is really a RELATIVE CLAUSE with a dropped 'that' (and also a dropped 'is', which is concerning). What stumps me is, is there are way of determining if the 'that is' is implied, but not present, or if it is actually not present?
There is some special rule that an adjective phrase that contains a prepositional phrase always comes after the noun it modifies. One might say "the bread fluffy in the centre" or "the steak red and bloody in the middle", but not "the fluffy in the centre bread" or "the red and bloody in the middle steak". [but then, what is the explanation for this rule?] [and, are there other types of adjective phrases than come after the noun?]
This seems to me like a weirdly basic but confusing question: it's pretty uncontroversial that adjectives come before the noun in English. "The red dog". Adjective phrases also come before the noun. "The very large, red, and strangely menacing dog". So why do adjective phrases like "available in the bakery" come after the noun instead?