I'm confused as to which symbol should I be using when transcribing Georgian with IPA.

as native speaker of Georgian myself, I feel my /ɣ/ and /x/ sound more like uvular than velar.

I could be wrong tho.

1 Answer 1


This article on Georgian phonetics suggests that there is no definite answer, because the phonetic realization varies contextually including according to speaker. Listening to two speakers of Georgian pronouncing the letter ღ=γ, the male speaker uses a uvular and the female uses a posterior velar. Also compare ხ=x where the same female speaker uses a posterior velar. Most sources seem to classify it as velar, but there is no detailed experimental study that verifies that claim.

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