I read here that the Arabic word بطريق (penguin) ultimately derives from Latin patricius (patrician), through Greek and Aramaic, but I couldn't find any explanation of how and why the shift in meaning happened, nor I could find if there is any cognate in other languages with the same meaning of "penguin". How could the meaning go from "patrician" to "penguin"?
I used al-batriq as the Arabic name for this bird because in Latin it is named penguin which means the "chubby bird" and batriq means the same thing in Arabic
Obtaining a copy to verify the claim may be tricky. Obviously, you need to know where the word first was used in Arabic.