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We know a preposition (in X-bar theory) is the head of a prepositional phrase and it has a complement that is the sister of this very preposition. However I've never seen a language with a constituent in the specifier position of the PP.

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Is there a reason for that? Is there a language that fills it with something?

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In his syntax textbook, Richard Larson (2010: 346-7) suggests that measure phrases in PPs, e.g. “three miles” in “three miles down the road”, occupy the specifier of PP. If that’s correct, English is a language that can have constituents in Spec,PP - though it doesn’t always.

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English has PP specifiers!

The bird flew right over us.

My friend lives just around the corner.

Most dictionaries seem to call these adverbs, but syntactically they serve a different function than words like quickly or carefully, but I'm not aware of a different name in the literature for words like this.

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