Kazakh and Turkish belong to same language group.

But Kazakh is more archaic, Turkish is more modern.

In Kazakh, there are auxiliary verbs otur, jur , and jatir that become part of the word in Turkish:

root word:

war - savaş (tr), sogis (kk)

he is fighting him: tr: savaşiyor

kk: sogisip jatir

why did the jatir got merged into the root word savaş?

3 Answers 3


Very complicated question:

firstly, there no archaic/modern distinction within these language: both have modern literary tradition. But they can keep archaic features of sub-levels or even proto-conditions;

secondly, you have mistake with 'root word' because savaş/sogıs are derivatives from •√saba-, where -ş/-s are verbal noun formants; and savaşiyor/sogısıp catır(jatır) are derivatives from √savaş-(mak)/√sogıs-(ıw), where -ş-/-s- is the reciprocal;

thirdly, Oghuz formant -Iyor isn't from √cat-(jat-) but from formerly verb √yör(ü)-//to run [it is cognate to cür-(jür-)];

fourthly, it need to clarify that these auxiliary verbs in this case are parts of the present tense - so-called new praesens - and they differentiate in their behaviour from the very same auxiliary verbs when they used for showing a mood or a modality (so another verbs used too): e.g. new praesens is sogısıp cür but as an auxiliary verb is sogısıp cüredi in the present or sogısıp cürdi in the past [there is -A tur- form additionally to the -Ip Aux.Verb form but only with √tur-]; there no such feature in the Oghuz branch except few languages/dialects that was contacted with Kipchak so there only -Iyor is new praesens [ similar but different situation within few Kipchak languages itself; there no so-called new praesens at all in some Kipchak languages, there is only simple present -A-/-y- ];

fifthly, -Iyor is grammaticalized -A yör- and it was corrupted by languages and dialects to even -(I)(r);

sixthly, there was -Ar formant - so-called aorist or present-future - in Kipchak and Oghuz branches, and for Kipchak branch it has tendency to determine the future with sporadically open/close vowels [i.e. -Vr] in it by different Kipchak languages/dialects; in the Oghuz branch it still an aorist but in some Oghuz language/dialects there happened the contamination with new praesens especially where it was corrupted to the -Ir than there is the tendency to indicate the present with -Ir formant and the future with -Ar formant. But sometimes the aorists defend to the contamination by the unmotivated round vowel,(i.e. -Ur): -Ir [present, aorist]:-Ar [future] vs. -Ir [present]:-Ur [aorist]:-Ar [future]; there are some another strategies for this by dialects;

seventhly, the very complicated question, but interesting and difficult to been described in few words; by the way, there is the fusion of "-Ip catır" form to the "-Ivatır" [in the colloquial speech; this is the first stage to possible more corruption, as in Oghuz branch; n.b. that "-Ip catır/etc.* as new praesens already has been grammaticalized (just because of its differentiating behaviour)] ; the verb catır[jatır] is interesting itself because it must be just cat[<√cat-(ıw)] as tur from √tur- but it is catır, possible explanations: there is an artefact of old aorist, or there is the contamination with otır, tur, cür forms.


I don't think that Turkish -yor is the result of merging jatir to the verb. Turkish language belongs to Oghuz branch which has significant differences from Kipchak branch. Constructs similar to Turkish -yor exist in Turkmen and Azerbaijan languages.

yazir - he is writing (Azerbaijan)

yazar - he is writing (Turkmen)

All three languages belong to Oghuz branch.

But Kazakh is more archaic, Turkish is more modern.

That's a questionable statement. Both Kazakh and Turkish originates from the common ancestor, Proto-Turkic language.


The why? question is not answerable from a linguistic point of view, it just happened so. But there is a general phenomenon across languages named grammaticalization that describes the fate of words becoming a part of the grammar of the language: They tend to loose their autonomy and merge with another word, becoming an affix in this process.

  • maybe this is cuz people want to speak faster? like it's tedious to say 2 words - so "otur/jatir" becomes just "yor" in turkish?
    – ERJAN
    Commented Mar 2, 2022 at 17:00
  • 1
    Yes, but at the same time people still want to be understood correctly, so there is a delicate balance between speed and clarity. But this balance can be shifted towards speed when the expression becomes strongly conventionalized or even obligatory. Commented Mar 2, 2022 at 17:16
  • This is where (for instance) English contractions and fast speech forms like wanna, hafta, and gotta come from. They get used, they get frozen, they get expected and chopped down.
    – jlawler
    Commented Jul 22, 2022 at 15:38

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