What are the IAST symbols for

  • ड़ as in लड़का, पहाड़, जड़ etc
  • ढ़ as in पढ़ाई, बाढ़, पीढ़ी etc

I have glanced through the Wikipedia page for IAST but couldn't find desired content.

However IPA pronunciations of ड़ and ढ़ seem to be denoted as ṛa and ṛha respectively.

1 Answer 1


The primary reason is that IAST was designed for the classical Indic languages which don't have those consonants. The diacritic nukta was introduced in more modern times. The conventional neo-IAST transliterations are ड़ = ṛ(a) and ढ़ = ṛh(a), which is not IPA – IPA would be [ɽə] and [ɽʰə].

  • I know ड़ and ढ़ are very close to Ra र sound. But is used for vowel ऋ 😑 (However I feel there are low chances of ambiguity)
    – ShivCK
    Mar 21, 2022 at 2:24
  • The under-dot is multi-purpose in IAST. The potential ambiguity does not arise in the classical languages.
    – user6726
    Mar 21, 2022 at 4:43
  • Just FYI, this tool called AksharaMukha seems to be using for ड़ in IAST. Not sure if it was made-up by the author or if it's a latest modification to the IAST standard.
    – Gōkúl NC
    Mar 30, 2022 at 5:48

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