I'm a university student studying sound structure. It's a first-year course. No matter how many times it's explained to me in lectures, tutorials, help labs, or office hours -- I don't understand all the circumstances that I would use one over the other.
/ / = phone, phoneme, mental grammar versus [ ] = after processes have been applied, phonetic
But, when I look online, even if processes have been applied to a name, for example -- it's still showing as / /, such as: 'Yasiin Bey' /jæˈsiːn ˈbeɪ/ instead of [jæˈsiːn ˈbeɪ].
What am I not understanding?