Why Does PGmc *smalaz (from PIE *(s)mal-) have "a" (not "o")?

  • 4
    Why should it have *o? Long PIE (usually < eh2) becomes PG , but short *a generally remains *a. Apr 12, 2022 at 8:33
  • @JanusBahsJacquet Why Does Proto-Slavic have long ā malъ? Apr 12, 2022 at 9:04
  • 1
    That’s a much better question – not one I’m sure anyone knows the answer to (but I’m not a Slavicist!). Derksen chooses to reconstruct a root *(s)meh₁- with a (presumably diminutive) -lo suffix. He posits o-grade for the Sl. form, and e-grade for Gk μῆλον and OIr míl, but zero-grade for Gmc… which of course doesn’t work, because *sm̥h₁-lo- would become **sumla. Others have argued that the root is *(s)melH-, which works for Gmc, but less so for Gk and OIr, and not for Sl. at all. Perhaps they’re from separate roots, or perhaps there was a metathesis in Gmc… Apr 12, 2022 at 9:18
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    @JanusBahsJacquet zero-grade smh̥1-lo would give the correct Germanic reflex, and it's more typical for the coda of the root to become syllabic in zero-grades
    – Tristan
    Apr 12, 2022 at 9:42
  • 1
    that said, the reconstruction of this particular root is definitely problematic
    – Tristan
    Apr 12, 2022 at 9:43

1 Answer 1


Proto-Germanic lacked a robust distinction between the *o & *a vowel qualities.

At an early stage, the two qualities merged, with the short phoneme always being reflected as *a, and the long & overlong phonemes always as *ō and *ô. Later a new *ā developed from earlier *aja sequences, and borrowings, but it was quite restricted.

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