Sentire means hearing, and at the same time feeling, in Italian and it's used passively in both senses.
- Mi sento male - I feel bad
- Ho sentito il tuo nome - I heard your name
Why among all senses have Italians chosen hearing to represent feeling?
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Another way to put the question is, why do English speakers use so many words to convey Italian sentire? Italian unifies various kinds of sensation (physical and mental) in a way that English doesn't. In English, you consume food by "eating" is, and we don't use different words for eating soft foods vs. tougher foods like meat that require beating the food with your teeth. Some languages make such a distinction.
Ultimately, these connections between meanings and word are conventionalized by historical processes. Therefore you would want to look at the historical meanings of that root in Latin. What happened to Latin audiō → udire; what were the uses of sentiō in Latin and how about the Indo-European predecessor. Why did the meaning of *sent- become so limited in Germanic?