Cases are baffling and puzzling to me. I'm trying to learn Polish and trying to master the cases, and I'm sincerely confused at all the different uses one case can have.
If one case is, say, used with a sentence's direct object, that seems like a clear, specific rule. You remember that rule, you're done. But then, that stretches beyond this simple grammatical rule and can also be used with different verbs. For instance, the accusative case is used for the verb to build, but it's also used for negation.
I'm struggling to formulate this question, so I'm sorry if it's confusing to people, but, how is it that the use of a case can go beyond specific, set rules, and also be used with different verbs. How is it that these verbs correspond to the basic premise of the case, such as "use this verb with this grammatical concept"? And for instance, the instrumental case is used for instance when certain nouns are an "instrument" in the sentence, such as "I'm doing something with", in English it looks like instrumental is used with the preposition with, when in truth it's used in Polish because the noun after "with" is the instrument with which the action (shown by the verb) is performed. But then, if the instrumental case is also used with a list of verbs, independently of that first rule, then isn't it a bit randomised ultimately? Do the nouns that follow these specific verbs somehow act as an "instrument" to the verb itself and that's why these specific verbs are systematically used with the instrumental, and it's the case for all the different cases?
I just don't understand, there's no logic to it. I realise this may be have been quite convoluted, so please ask me to clarify what I mean more if that helps. It just seems to me that most learning tools and websites don't go into those details, they just throw those rules at people's faces and except them to just take it in without questioning the basic functioning of the language.