The process I'm trying to describe is what someone does instinctively when they are still learning a language that has the same origin as their mother tongue, and they don't know a particular word, so they try to take the word from their mother tongue and make it sound like the language they're learning.
Of course this doesn't always work, for instance because languages often have more than one origin, and the evolution of words is not perfectly predictable. Still, I think there's an element of it that is predictable, and I'm curious if there's some formalization of this translation process, and if so, what it is called.
I've heard about transliteration and transcription, but this is not really it. If there's any light you can provide on this subject, I'd be really thankful. Thank you in advance.