This may be a case where a Eurocentric view is good enough.
Roughly half the European languages have articles, and half don’t, and it varies within families and even dialect continua, and between modern languages and their direct ancestors. Some of those direct ancestors are relatively well documented, like Latin, Old Church Slavonic and Homeric Greek.
But without even looking at them, the fact that definite articles are so unstable suggests that there are no strict rules about which types of languages have or don’t have definite articles.
More evidence of instability:
Within the same family, like Germanic and Romance, there are languages where articles come before the noun and languages where they come after.
There are languages where articles are combined with determiners like possessive pronouns, or articles are used with proper names, or abstract concepts, and others like English where the use of articles does not go as far.
Much of this even varies within dialects of the same language.