I'm wondering about the origins of the various non-finite verbal endings in Latin.

My understanding so far of their PIE origins:

  • Infinitives:
    • Present Active: -s-ey (dative of an s-stem verbal noun)
    • Perfect Active: no idea
    • Present Passive: thematic genitive either on bare stem or s-stem depending on conjugation?
  • Participles:
    • Present Active: -nt-s, other branches have o-grade in thematic verbs
    • Future Active: no idea
    • Perfect Passive: -t-os
    • Future Passive: related to the gerund?
  • Verbal Nouns:
    • Gerund: presumably related to the present active participle, but the voicing is odd
    • Supine: -tu-s

Is anyone aware of further information on any of these?

  • I'm aware this may also be suited to latin se, but as it is primarily concerned with historical linguistics I think it's better suited to here
    – Tristan
    Nov 4, 2022 at 17:32
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    Sihler (1995:610ff.) likens the present passive to Vedic infinitives based on datives of root nouns (yujé < *i̯ug-éi̯, rucé < *luk-éi̯) and says that the -r- was inserted later by analogy with the actives where applicable, e.g., act. *amāye-si vs pass. *amāye-ī*amāye-si vs *amāye-sī. In cases like *lege-si vs *leg-ī, apparently the parallel was too weak for the analogy to function. @Draconis But with something additional to account for the geminate s. Nov 4, 2022 at 18:50
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    The Latin perfect stem had four origins and four shapes -- reduplicative (dedi), sigmatic (visi), u (audivi), and long vowel (vīdi). Plus plenty of consonant gradation and vowel change, like vinco/vici or ago/egi.
    – jlawler
    Nov 4, 2022 at 19:11
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    @jlawler The stems, yes; but this is asking about the markers for the infinite forms, not the stems they’re attached to. Nov 4, 2022 at 20:11
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    @jlawler Janus is correct that I'm interested in the endings rather than stems. I've clarified the question
    – Tristan
    Nov 7, 2022 at 9:34


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