The near-open front unrounded vowel is written as æ(U+00E6), commented as "Latin Small Letter Ae". But I found the character ᴂ(U+1D02) commented as "Latin Small Letter Turned Ae" which is a new char created by rotating æ 180 degrees and the character locates at the Phonetic Extensions block which means it is used mainly for phonetic purpose. So, I wonder what is the character ᴂ used for in phonetics?

1 Answer 1


Uralicist notation (sometimes called the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet) rotates vowel characters to indicate a shortened, centralized, or reduced form of the vowel. The original proposal to the Unicode Consortium confirms that was the reason for the turned vowel glyphs, including turned æ.

That's also why we have codepoints like ᴞ, for a reduced version of ü (a high front rounded vowel).

  • That's very helpful! Thanks a lot.
    – C.K.
    Nov 5, 2022 at 5:54
  • One more question: where can I find unicode proposals like the document you mentioned? And thanks again.
    – C.K.
    Nov 5, 2022 at 6:00
  • 1
    @C.K. They're officially listed somewhere on the Unicode site, but I find it easier to access them by going to the Wikipedia page for the block in question (every block has one); they should all be listed by date, author, and range at the bottom of the page. That's where I found this one.
    – Draconis
    Nov 5, 2022 at 15:40
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    @C.K. have a look at the Unicode Technical Committee Document Registry at unicode.org/L2
    – devio
    Nov 6, 2022 at 18:03
  • @devio Thank you! That's what I want!
    – C.K.
    Nov 7, 2022 at 1:21

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