This generalization: In assimilation involving consonant–vowel pairs, the consonant may affect the vowel or the vowel may affect the consonant.
what is an example of this in our English lexicon?
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Vowels affect consonants: anticipatory labialization of consonants in the onset before a round vowel (cool, code). Progressive unrounding of /ɹʷ/ a.k.a. "r" after an unrounded vowel, in "bear, bare, bar" vs. retention in "poor, pore" as well as in onsets (cry, rip). Consonants affect vowels: /u/ fronts to [ʉ] between coronal consonants (tooth, tutor) though this is more in casual speech. Regressive nasalization of vowels before nasals (can, spam). Flapping (water) is also an assimilation of surrounding vocal tract stricture. However, these are not "in the lexicon", they are in the rule system. "In the lexicon" would presumably be an ancient phonological process that dies out and is just preserved as a lexical tendency, such as the distribution of voiceless vs. voiced fricatives, where formerly voiceless fricatives assimilated to the voicing of surrounding vowels giving cloth (θ) vs clothe (ð).