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For example, we have:

  • ٴ : high hamza, as opposed to regular hamza ء
  • ء: small high meem, as opposed to regular meem م
  • U+0616: ARABIC SMALL HIGH LIGATURE ALEF WITH LAM WITH YEH
  • U+0615: ARABIC SMALL HIGH TAH
  • U+06E3: ARABIC SMALL LOW SEEN as opposed to regular seen س
  • etc.

What are all these "small high x" and "high x" and "low x", etc.? What are they used for, are they actual letters used in words, or are they perhaps like Roman numerals or super/subscripts for numbers of some sort? I can't find any information on these small things.

Also related to this, what are the ligatures like ٸ "high hamza yeh", is it just "hamza followed by yeh", or is the "high hamza" (which I don't know the meaning of) on top of yeh? There are a few other combos like that in there too.

For reference, I am looking at the Arabic Unicode block.

Also for reference if it matters, I am trying to write a script to remove all diacritics from Arabic unicode text, hence being unsure about these high/low small symbols, I'm not sure if I should remove them or keep them or change them into their "regular sized" letter alternative.

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  1. These Small High and Above/Below character are non spacing character which it will appear on top/below the character just like the diacritics (Fatha Damma Kasra etc.) mostly for Quranic Annotation uses. Same goes to Hamzah Above ٔ and Below ٕ. Make sure to check what category it is.

For example these Small High Seen are used to tell the user the Sad here is pronounced like Seen Small seen example

  1. Hamza High is like any other character and not small, just leave it all as one character and not diacritic (U+0674 => U+0678), tho Unicode says the preferred way to write it by using ٵ ٶ ٸ. Beside, it also used to write Malay Jawi for Hamza Three Quarter and used in some font like Amiri (I don't know why Unicode assigned Hamza 3/4 to Hamza High tho (・・;)ゞ).

To make it easier to understand: Hamza in Amiri Font Example

  1. Maybe try to make so it will have the option to remove some of it. Diacritic/Mark a.k.a. non spacing character (Fatha, Hamza Above etc.), Quranic Symbol/Sign or remove all of it.

Hope this will help :D

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