I hope to find the standard pronunciations of nasalized cardinal vowels and English vowels. Where can these pronunciations be found? I looked for them in many places. But they can’t be found in IPA’s website and many academic books.

1 Answer 1


Officially, they don't exist. You might try to produce them yourself if you can learn to reproduce the cardinal vowels, and can also produce nasal vowels. Or you could use this chart, where the speaker has his own theory of how these combinations of letter should be pronounced. There also exists a set of recordings from the old days, the "Smalley tapes", which includes many sound productions and associated non-IPA transcription. Those production are not officially sanctioned by the IPA, compared to the ones actually hosted by the IPA.

  • Thank you for you website. But the pronunciations of the nasalized vowels in the website are quite different from those of nasalized vowels in French and American English. It seems that the degree of nasalization is quite small?
    – hangover
    Commented Jun 2, 2023 at 4:28
  • There is no premise that vowel nasalization is the same in all languages. In fact, we know that vowel nasalization in French is very different from vowel nasalization in English.
    – user6726
    Commented Jun 2, 2023 at 4:35

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