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According to Wiktionary, Polish czarny is from PSl *čьrnъ, and czervony is from *čьrvenъ. At least prima facie the soft yers appears to have become different vowels in Polish.

I'm aware of the following sound rules (from Wikipedia):

  • PSl ě becomes a before unpalatized alveolars; e becomes o.
  • Strong yers in PSl become e

The rules kind of explain czarny and czervony, but not quite. At least according to the rule, a soft yer does not become ě, and rv in *čьrvenъ is not quite palatized (are they)?

How can the modern czarny and czervony be explained?

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