I was wondering whether there are words for the two types of prepositions, or a word for the distinction between them. I understand that the difference between them is that one is a "static" preposition, while the other describes motion towards the position. I've noticed there are also other such pairs, like "on" and "onto". Also, such distinctions don't exist in all languages, though it is not exclusive to English either.
The difference is expressed by grammatical cases in some languages (e.g., Finnish), and Lists of Grammatical Cases distinguish Location, Motion-to, and Motion-from. The most generic terms I can take from there are locative (Location), allative (Motion-to), and ablative (Motion-from).