The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis is an excellent book for getting an overview of many distinct paradigms in modern linguistics. Indeed, the introduction says that that is its aim.
It includes chapters on a variety of modern approaches to linguistics, including:
- cognitive grammar
- categorial grammar
- cartographic syntax
- embodied construction grammar (ECG)
- dependency grammar
- the natural semantic metalanguage
- lexical functional grammar
- functional discourse grammar
- and much more
I can try to update this answer with a summary of each approach.
To quote the introduction:
The main objective of this handbook is to have current influential approaches to linguistic analysis represented and to provide the reader with a convenient means of comparing and evaluating the various approaches.