I'm not sure I fully understand what you are asking but I can offer some examples of argument structure which may provide some context to it.
Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), which is often analyzed as an “ergative” language as mentioned above, allows free argument order and lacks true passive forms. Closely related Punjabi is also ergative and retains morphological passive forms of verbs, however their use is rather marginal by speakers of most dialects. (In the Jatki dialect they can be heard very frequently, and their retention seems almost like a stylistic choice. These forms tend to lend themselves well to a form of aphorism-laden storytelling tradition popular in Punjab and Sindh.) The reason why Hindustani has shed itself of passive forms is an open question that nobody has provided a satisfactory answer for as far as I know. My hunch is that the answer lies in cultural differences in the native speech community of Hindi compared to those of Indic languages to the immediate west of it.
Take these example sentences:
لڑکے نے کتاب پڑھی
laṛke ne kitāb paṛhī
منڈے نے کتاب پڑھی
muṇḍe ne kitāb paṛhī
English translation for both: Boy book read (boy has read book)
لڑکا کتاب پڑھتا
laṛkā kitāb paṛhtā
منڈا کتاب پڑھدا
muṇḍā kitāb paṛhdā
English: Boy book read (boy reads book).
Now what's going on here is the argument order is exactly the same in both sentences but in the first the verb form (a perfect participle) agrees in gender with the book (feminine), while in the second the form (an imperfect participle) agrees in gender with the boy (masculine). This semantic distinction cannot be made in English but what the ergative postposition ne is doing is allowing a shift in topic/focus to the book instead of the boy. This is formally similar to a passive construction but not passive in meaning. Due to the agreement rules, we can reorder the arguments in the above sentences without changing their meaning. “kitāb muṇḍe ne paṛhī” is still focused on the book rather than the boy. (Generally though, speakers find it more natural to place animate participants in a sentence first, regardless of the syntactic construction being employed.)
As you can see the grammar of these constructions is practically the same between these two languages. Why does Punjabi retain passive verb forms while Hindustani does not? That is a very hard question to answer and does not necessarily have to do with a difference in verbal argument structure between the two languages.