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I have noticed that both Lombard, Venetan and Ligurian (and I assume Piedmontese) use "gh'" (i.e. /g/) for the 3SG dative clitic (Italian "gli") and at least some of the many functions of "ci" (Lombard "avegh" vs. Italian "averci"). Unfortunately I haven't been able to find where it comes from. Does anyone know/have some source where I can gawk at more Romance clitics?

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First, the form is not gh (at least in the regional languages I am familiar with) but rather ghe (that sometimes can support elision, but not often). For example in the Venetian Ghe go dito 'I have told him/her'.

Regarding its origin, Rohlfs in Grammatica storica della lingua italiana e i suoi dialetti, §459 says (my translation)

In the other northern dialects ghe today prevails [...] This form has nothing in common with the ancient Veronese ǵe (< illi), and comes from a place adverb meaning there; the basis is probably the Latin hic (cf. §903).

Paragraph 903 is about ghe as a place adverb (as in the Venetian ghe so 'I am there') and says

Regarding the origin of the particle [ghe], people have thought about an identification with the Tuscan qui eccu hic (Meyer-Lübke, §371) or about an origin from ibi (Ascoli, D'Ovidio, Salvioni). But neither of the explanations is convincing from a phonetic point of view. A greather likelihood can be given to hic, that in the expression hic habet could become g'a [...]. From here g' could easily be transferred to the verb 'essere', for example gh'è 'there is' and g(e) santa 'there are' with e epentetic vowel, with gradual generalization to ghe.

Summing up, Rohlfs' thesis is that ghe originated from hic with addition of a vowel e to help the pronunciation (and voicing of the intervocalic /k/ as regular in norther Italo-Romance languages).

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