There are many kinds of participles. English has two kinds, past participles (eaten) and present participles (eating).

The Wikipedia article on the Albanian language doesn't cover as much as many other language articles. I have seen mention on Wiktionary of Albanian participles but not what kind or if the language has various kinds.

So which kinds of participles are present in Albanian?

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    Is there some constructive criticism to accompany the down vote or is it glaringly obvious what is wrong with this question to everybody except me? Sep 26, 2011 at 16:52

1 Answer 1


Albanian has arguably only the past participle.

It is often formed by adding an "-ur" postfix at the end of the stem if the stem ends with a consonant and "-r" otherwise (although there are of course many special cases). In Tosk there is only one form but Teg instead has two forms depending on whether the past participle is used as an adjective or in verbal phrase.

This apparent paucity is compensated by a large number of uses.

  • The Gerund is formed by the juxtaposition of dúke/tue with the past participle [Tosk/Geg]. Which is why I claim that there is no specific "present participle". See the use of "po" however as another way to form progressive forms.
  • The Infinitive itself is composed of për te + past participle [Tosk] or me + past articiple [Geg].
  • Many past tenses use the past participle combined with a variety of auxiliaries.

For more, you can refer to verbix a great resource for many present and past languages.

  • Just the kind of answer I was hoping for, thanks Alain! I didn't realize how different Tosk and Gheg were, I expected mostly pronunciation differences. Feb 19, 2012 at 21:11

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