For example. In the sentence fragment "red leather stool", red is a color, leather is a covering of the stool, and stool is a chair.
Is there any database, corpus or repository, that lists the applicable modifiers of objects (eg: chair, car, etc)
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Though your exact research purposes are not quite clear, based on your specs, I believe the University College London English Usage Resources (http://www.ucl.ac.uk/english-usage/resources/index.htm) would be a good place to start with. (Though it is diacronic 1950's to 1990's, methinks.)
Similarly, the Boston University Noun Phrase corpus also has a pretty decent search facility: http://npcorpus.bu.edu/cgi-bin/search.pl
But, probably in terms of breadth, Brigham Young University takes the lead with its incredible list of corpora: http://corpus.byu.edu/