I have been told that, in Chinese, terms for "yes" and "no" used as answers for questions are not needed because one answers yes-no questions by either repeating the verb in the question or adding a negative word to the repetition of the verb in the question. So the answer to a question meaning "Did the thief take the gold" could be either "take" (the affirmative answer) or "not take" (the negative answer). I am told that this type of answer to yes-no questions is also found in other languages.
It seems to me that this strategy makes for less ambiguity than we have in English, as we see here:
Q: Did he NOT COME to the party?
A1: Yes. (affirming that he did not come to the party)
A2: Yes. (affirming that he did come to the party)
A3: No. (denying that that he came to the party)
A4: No. (denying that he did not come to the party)
Of course, we English speakers can disambiguate such answers in a number of ways, including a tag to the answer. "Yes, he did." "Yes, he didn't," ... etc.
But aside from answering with a verb vs. a negated verb, or using tags as in English, what other grammatical or lexical strategies are commonly used in natural languages to avoid ambiguous answers to negative yes-no questions?