Is there an annotation tool which can create annotation tasks automatically using an XML schema?

The desirable annotation markup may be specified with an XML schema file. I'd like to be able to import the XML schema into a GUI annotation tool. The tool can then generate markup elements (e. g., in a combobox associated with a fragment of text) corresponding to the elements specified in the schema. I would like to be able to export the text in the XML format correspoding with the schema.

There is a Callisto annotation tool, which supports DTD for such tasks. But I haven't found any which supports XML Schema

  • You might want to elaborate this question a bit. Which annotation tasks? Feb 8, 2014 at 6:38
  • 1
    i've edited the question, hope it's clearer now.
    – gisly
    Feb 8, 2014 at 12:41

2 Answers 2


GATE is a fairly well known and widely used annotation tool. It allows users to specify customized annotation schemas using XML. I also believe it natively lets you export your corpus to XML.

I would caution you that GATE is very much a tool by engineers for engineers. The interface is a bit clunky and the GATE server requires quite a bit of initial set up. It's most suitable for projects with multiple annotators working concurrently.


Another GUI interface tool for annotation you can use is MAE (Multi-document Annotation Environment) written by Amber Stubbs. It requires you to supply your own .DTD file (essentially .xml), which defines the possible annotation tags and links for the annotator. It also allows the creation of non-consuming tags, which are for links that do not have any corresponding text / image in the annotated document, but are necessary to create to satisfy the annotation guidelines / specification.

MAE is designed specifically for linguistics undergraduates to perform annotation of documents. It is written in Java and the source is openly available. So if you need to tweak something, it can be done.

google-code link to MAE: https://code.google.com/p/mae-annotation/source/browse/#svn%2Ftrunk%2FMAE%2Fbin%2Fmae

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