Most Esperanto scientific, some technology-specific, or financial dictionaries available online cover vast range, but mostly old terminology that was around for many years. How does one translate or borrow (loan) new words that appear (very rapidly) for example in IT industry, finances, or adjacent highly volatile areas, in those cases not covered by standard affix rules of Esperanto?
Example: I once noticed that "CPU stepping level", often used (as a noun) as simply stepping, was translated as tretante, which is obviously wrong (nouns must end in -o). I started to think how to properly translate it. Despite its simplicity, etymology of this English word is quite complex: notice how two completely different nouns are formed from the original step: stepper (machine) and stepping (in the context of CPU/IC, kind of a version number). While transition from paŝo (step) to paŝilo (stepper as a machine) can be more or less straightforward, further transformation (stepping as indirect result of stepper complete work, generation thereof) is not. The closest candidates are:
- Category suffixes -aĵ and -ec
- Noun suffix -id (if at all possible)
-aĵ shows a concrete, tangible manifestation of the root (aĵo = a thing), but stepping is not that of step or even stepper. It denotes something which was noticed as convenient, distinct reference point, akin to revision or version (edition), yet clearly related to the stepper machine and the way it works.
-ec shows a quality or characteristic defined by the root (eco = a characteristic, quality), but it normally applies to adjectives, not nouns; paŝeco would rather refer to some property of the machine, or the process itself (e.g. certain operational parameter).
-id denotes the offspring of the creature defined in the root. Usually used for living creatures like kittens (katido), but also for halogenic salts (klorido). It is unclear if it can be used (and be understandable) elsewhere (paŝido or paŝilido both do not exactly make much sense to me).
More and more English nouns appear which end in -ing and, unlike casting or screening, derived as result of some intricate procedure, or interpretation of its results, with no direct and simple relationship to the root, or had significantly evolved over time (e.g. marketing and other financial words like futures [contract, exchange]). Are there any guidelines or somewhat general rules available for constructing coherent Esperanto equivalents of these nouns (ending in -o) for special, complicated cases like these?