I would like to read more about descriptive personal names, such as "Red Cloud", "His-Horse-is-Crazy", "Salmon Eater", "Twilight Sparkle", "Rainbow Dash", "One who yawns", "Sitting Bull", "One man bucket", "Black Elk", etc. I have been exposed to a term that describes them, but have not been able to discover it through searching. What is the term for these kinds of names?
There's nothing special about them, AFAIK. A huge number of personal names, everywhere, are like that. For example, George (earth-worker) , Alfred (Elf-council), etc. look just as descriptive. Most names are either formed like this, or express some devotional idea. The names you mentioned sound odd to us because their community chose to translate the names into modern English. Translated, your own name, "who is like God?", is not all that different from the names you mentioned.
The term for a name which describes an individual well is "aptonym". All examples provided are "word names". As prash notes, Michael is a Hebrew name meaning "who is like God?". While it may be an aptonym for a preacher, given that it appears to be somewhat of a contraction in Hebrew it would not be a "word name".
Thus, either or both of "aptonym" or "word name".
jk - Reinstate Monica states the German "Sprechender Name", roughly translating to "descriptive name" (literally "speaking name"), is another term for this phenomena.