Dominik Lukes said:
Plus, you make a very simplistic link between knowledge, names and physical reality. You could say that all three are constantly interacting in a mutually constructive way. But there is no chain of mirror like reflections.
That's the most important thing to understand. Language is being constructed while it's constructing. It morphoses 'in the middle' of the whole dynamic of our consciousness, serving as a common 'ground' based on sounds, time, etc., which implies a lot of 'determined' characteristics of human (not only phonetically but culturally and perhaps emotional and psychologically), which as it's obvious holds a very complex structure, a structure that keeps changing and re-using, maybe tendencially simplifying, it's resources in accordance to it's needs.
Since language comes after human synthesis of the perceived world and the whole complex of emotions and the already established concepts (which affects both our input and output), to say that language reflects in pieces external reality in it's full objectivity, or say that language is a system fixed enough to reflect it objectively, is too reducing, it attributes language a place it doesn't have (which doesn't mean it's not highly important).
So in short, as you formulated your question, the answer is no, language doesn't give any raw or objective information of realities external and independent to us (nature); it simply helps to build up an understanding about our perception of that reality to keep developing through it.