Martinet's "double articulation of language": With phonemes we build morphemes, and with morphemes, words. I'd like to get a sense of how productive are these combinations: With only a few phonemes we can build more than X morphemes, and with those people have built more than Y words.
It's easy to count phonemes, and languages seem to range from ~13 to ~112. "Words" (lexemes) are fuzzy things, but we can get an easy rough estimate from dictionaries (more than 150k in the OED). So from the first level to the third we jump 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. But what about morphemes? What's a typical number of morphemes in a speaker's lexicon? (I'm not sure if we can use Chinese characters as a good representation of the set of morphemes, but if so it would suggest the low ten-thousands…)